cochliomyia hominivorax distribution

McAlpine JF. Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. Management of the Current Outbreak 2016. > 0°C, dry winters), Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC), Moderate risk with movement of infested animals, Very low risk by movement of infested hunting dogs, COPEG, Panama–United States Commission for the Eradication and Prevention of Screwworm, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. OIE, 2009. United States Department of Agriculture, 500. The screwworm was eradicated via the sterile insect release method in which flies sterilized by exposure to gamma radiation were liberated into the environment from aircraft. Although this species is considered to occur throughout the country, organized information about its recorded distribution has not bee … A single adult female can lay as many as 350 eggs, but not all eggs are deposited in a single wound. Their damage is done through the feeding of the larvae on the wounds of living animals. 1. Role of ivermectin in the treatment of severe orbital myiasis due to. The distribution of tsetse fly in Africa overlaps that of C. bezziana to a considerable extent (see Figure 5), and historically cattle are not maintained in areas infested by tsetse. The following information was provided by FDACS on 04 Oct. 2016: Residents who have warm-blooded animals (dogs, cats, livestock, horses, birds, etc.) In: Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. should check their animals carefully and report any potential cases to 1-800-HELP-FLA (1-800-435-7352) or non-Florida residents should call (850) 410-3800. An agricultural emergency has been declared for Monroe County. Novy JE. (1936). Mature second instar larvae are approximately 6.3 mm to 7.4 mm and 1.5 mm, length and diameter, respectively, and are whitish to cream coloured. by Tan, K. -H.]. The Congo floor maggot ( Auchmeromyia luteola ) and Cordylobia anthropophaga are distributed in Africa south of the Sahara. Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties. Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. Wounds that are not treated can become life threatening in 7 to 14 days. Adult flies will emerge from the pupae 7 to 10 days later and begin the cycle again. Outside of the United States, introductions or re-introductions, followed by eradication, have occurred in Aruba, Australia, Curacao, Libya, Mexico, and Panama (Welch 2016). Skoda, S. R., Phillips, P. L., Welch, J. Screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the United States: Response to and Elimination of the 2016-2017 Outbreak in Florida. The sterile males, released in numbers far exceeding the normal population levels, competed with fertile males to mate with females. Website of the World Organisation for Animal Health (formerly Office International des Epizooties). Samantha Gibbs, U.S. For a detailed distribution map, please refer to the CABI Screwworm Datasheet. (Problemática del gusano barrenador del Ganado, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858) en Colombia.) The early stages of an infestation are difficult to detect (Figure 4). A second screwworm species, the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) also is found in Florida; however, this species only infests dead animals or animals already harboring primary screwworm infestations (Byrd 1998). Cushing and Patton (1933) documented the difference between Cochliomyia americana C & P and Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, which served as a key basis in the eradication of Cochliomyia hominivorax from North America, Central America and parts of the Caribbean. The association of this species with vertebrate hosts and its status as an insect pest suggest that the genetic and geographic distribution of this species is influenced by human activities. For a detailed distribution map please refer to the CABI Screwworm Datasheet. 2. For a detailed distribution map please refer to the CABI Screwworm Datasheet. C. macellaria is the most common species of the two in North America, distributed throughout northern South America, Central America, Caribbean Islands, the United States, and southern Canada. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. These traps are often used to monitor for the flies to ensure that sterile insect programs are working to provide area-wide control of screwworms (Vreysen et al. are common predators of larvae that have exited wounds to pupate and have been observed pulling larvae from wounds (J Welch, unpublished data). Pioneer lecture presentation by the Florida Entomological Society, Daytona Beach, Florida, 4 August 1997. Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are highly invasive and threaten animal and human health in the Americas. Adults are roughly 2 to 3 times the size of a house fly. It is a Neotropical species, and its former geographical distribution ranged from the southern U.S.A. to northern Argentina and throughout the Caribbean basin. Williams D L, Gartman S C, Hourrigan L, 1977. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. In the late 1950s, the USDA began implementing an eradication strategy based on releasing sterile male flies in the environment along with reducing infestations by continuous animal monitoring. Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties. ... screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax treated with subcuta- The New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes myiasis in man and warm‐blooded animals. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/home.html. Thomas DB, Mangan RL, 1989. Cochliomyia hominivorax was first described from adult flies bred from a human infestation; the name hominivorax means "man-eater" (Coquerel, 1858). Frequency distribution (%) of Cochliomyia hominivorax myiasis and adult records from articles published from 1875 to 2017 (n = 174) in Brazil. Wyss (2000) reported substantial annual economic benefits to producers (US$ with conversion to 2015 US$ in parentheses) after eradication of C. hominivorax; $896.1 million ($1.25 billion) for the United States of America, $328.6 ($458.5) million for Mexico, and $87.8 ($122.5) million for all of the Central America countries combined. Galante, L. Olea, M.J. Dantur JuriFirst report of myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a diabetic foot ulcer patient in Argentina The current distribution of Cochliomyia hominivorax is primarily south of the Darién gap in southern Panama, including much of South America, and on a few Caribbean islands, notably Jamaica and Cuba (Welch 2016). Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Volume 2. James MT. Cochliomyia hominivorax is a dipteran parasite that causes myiasis in wounds in mammals that was a serious livestock pest in the US prior to its eradication by the USDA. Cochliomyia is a genus in the family Calliphoridae, known as blowflies, in the order Diptera. Veggiani, E.S. Email a photo to AgVeterinarians@FreshFromFlorida.com and FDACS veterinarians will review the photo and respond to you. Write "Please review this photo for screwworm" in the subject line. Cushing EC, Patton WS, 1933, 20th December. Following initial colonization of the primary screwworm, other blow fly species may be attracted to the wound (Figures 4 and 5). The brood stock is taken to the adult fly colony (78°F [25.6°C], 70 percent RH), where 6 litres of pupae are placed in each adult-fly cage supplied with water, 1.6 litres of honey and 2.4 kg of honey-meat mixture. Oviposition and wound-visiting behavior of the screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is endemic to the Western Hemisphere, with the exception of Chile., although it has been eradicated from significant parts of its range. OIE, 2009. Figure 2. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Expanding the analysis of the economic impact of eradicating C. hominivorax from Central America by adding linkages to the economy and consumer benefits resulted in an estimated total annual economic impact of $704.3 ($982.6) million to consumers (Wyss, 2000). Treatment of the Individual The distribution of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) was studied in a seasonally moist lowland tropical forest in the Republic of Panama using a combination of field collections and satellite imagery. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. by Tan K -H]. At this time, the outbreak in the Florida Keys is considered to be confined and under quarantine (FDACS 2016). ©USDA-2002/Foreign Animal Diseases Training Set/USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Olea, N. Centeno, A.C.A. Fish and Wildlife Service. Studies on the Higher Diptera of 134 Medical and Veterinary Importance. United States Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication No. Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties. Fuller (1962) reported that mortality of fawns of White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmerman), ranged from 20 to 80 percent annually depending on environmental and population conditions. In these countries, C. hominivorax has been controlled for several decades almost exclusively by insecticides, particularly organophosphate (OP)‐based compounds, whose target site is the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Med. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, MD. Flies have three dark longitudinal stripes on the dorsal part of the thorax. Adults:Laake (1936) reported that flies are generally deep metallic greenish-blue in colour. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 395 pp. At this time, the outbreak in the Florida Keys is considered to be confined and under quarantine (FDACS 2016). Interestingly, most screwworm females only mate once, making them an ideal candidate for the sterile insect technique described below. Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-wide Integrated Pest Management. Area-wide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation. Due to the wide success of this program and in cooperation with our southern neighbors, the primary screwworm has been eradicated from North America down to a zone south of the Panama Canal. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Development of a new wound-treatment as coumaphos is no longer being produced. Animals may show discomfort and become lethargic when infested. Screwworm flies as agents of wound myiasis. We found that different forest types could be distinguished and … OIE Handistatus, 2004. Effect of Weather on Cochliomyia americana and a Review of Methods and economic Applications of the Study. C. hominivorax adults are approximately 2-3 times the size of a house fly. This species is also present in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. Although the young, old, and mentally challenged are more susceptible to myiasis, all humans are potential hosts. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties. Most species are of considerable economic importance to both humans and livestock. These non-screwworm blow flies may lay eggs in the same wound and thus one may see other types of blow fly adults and their larvae on the animals, particularly as the animal’s health declines. Wyss JH, 2000. 23 (s1), 106-110. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2915.2008.00794.x. Publishers. Screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the United States: Response to and Elimination of the 2016–2017 Outbreak in Florida, Journal of Medical Entomology, 55 https://doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjy049. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. 1991. Unlike most other species of blowflies, adult female screwworms do not lay their eggs on carrion. Detailed descriptions of the life stages of C. hominivorax are presented in Laake et al. Cochliomyia hominivorax is endemic to the Western Hemisphere and occurs in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones. Journal of Economic Entomology, 43(3):387-389 pp. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. 31-35. They are approximately 10.2 mm and 4.3 mm in length and width, respectively. Dear (1985) presents an explanation of the taxonomy and nomenclature of C. hominivorax and other members of the Chrysomyini. Coquerel C, 1858. Current status of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax in Venezuela. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 79-86. 1966. Additionally increase in the costs of inspection and handling of animals, and the increase in costs of insecticides, and veterinary services and medicines results in a negative economic impact (Wyss, 2000). Parker FD, Welch JB, Matlock RB, 1993. After removal, infestations often are treated topically with a pesticide to kill any larvae that may not have been removed and to reduce the likelihood of reinfestation. Cochliomyia hominivorax causes 80% of human myiasis in Argentina. Revista MVZ Cordoba, 13(2):1400-1414. http://apps.unicordoba.edu.co/revistas/revistamvz/mvz-132/v13n2a16.pdf. 21:31-35. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. The fly only lays its eggs on living animals, differentiating it from all other blow flies in the Americas. Photograph by Heather Stockdale Walden, University of Florida. [ed. Eggs have also been observed laid approximately 5 cm from the edge of wounds under the moist wool of sheep in Costa Rica during the rainy season (J Welch, personal observation). Their activity can draw in more adult flies, including those of other blow fly species, that can deposit more eggs. Mullen GR, Durden LA. Cushing EC, Patton WS, 1933, 20th December. Oct: 08-17. In southern South America, namely Argentina and Chile, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is the main myiasic agent on humans and domestic animals. A case of acute external otitis in a dog in Paris in 1982 is reported. Cochliomyia hominivorax distribution.svg 800 × 981; 1.71 MB Cochliomyia hominivorax.jpg 1,428 × 867; 416 KB CSIRO ScienceImage 1437 Screw worm fly.jpg 2,657 × 1,736; 3.46 MB Journal of Economic Entomology 70: 413-416. Cochliomyia hominivorax is endemic to the Western Hemisphere … Samantha Gibbs, U.S. Cochliomyia is commonly referred to as the New World screwworm flies, as distinct from Old World screwworm flies.Four species are in this genus: C. macellaria, C. hominivorax, C. aldrichi, and C. minima. Hall DG. Laake EW, Cushing EC, Parish HE, 1936. Other insects, birds, frogs, lizards and spiders feed on adult C. hominivorax.Welch (1993) describes the predation of ground-released sterile C. hominivorax flies by spiders.             Subphylum: Uniramia,                 Class: Insecta,                     Order: Diptera,                         Family: Calliphoridae,                             Genus: Cochliomyia,                                 Species: Cochliomyia hominivorax, Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, Benefits from human association (i.e. Cochliomyia is a genus of just 4 species of the New World tropics and sub-tropics where it largely replaces the Calliphora and Lucilia of the temperate zone.It includes the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, two little known species, C. minima and C. aldrichi, and the secondary screwworm fly C. macellaria. Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858), the New World screwworm, causes primary myiasis in wild and domestic animals in tropical and subtropical regions of Brazil. Cochliomyia americana sp. Susceptibility of screwworm larvae and prepupae to dessication. Myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by developing maggots of y species, which can infect humans. Several traps exist for monitoring primary screwworm adults; these are generally sticky traps baited with an attractant lure (swormlure-4) (Broce et al. Revista MVZ Cordoba. The primary screwworm is not capable of overwintering in areas that experience low temperatures or extended dry periods. Springer, Dordrecht, the Netherlands. Development of an attractant for male C. hominivorax. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests, 28 May-2 June, 1998 and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, Penang, Malaysia, 1-5 June, 1998. Screwworms can infest all types of mammals and other warm-blooded animals, including livestock, wildlife, pets and even humans, although they are rarely found in birds. Seasonal and spatial distributions of adult screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the Panama canal area, Republic of Panama. Size of this PNG preview of this SVG file: 489 × 600 pixels. Eggs are generally laid on or near the edges of wounds but may also be laid on or near host body orifices with purulent discharge. Originally introduced in 1930s; eradicated by 1959; outbreak in 2016 eradicated in 2017, Eradicated 2004; JB Welch, USDA, unpublished data, Eradicated 2011; JB Welch, USDA, unpublished data, Eradicated 2001; JB Welch, USDA, unpublished data, Introduced due to irradiator malfunction; eradicated 2003; JB Welch, USDA, unpublished data, Eradicated 2012; JB Welch, USDA, unpublished data, Eradicated 2009; C Duerr, COPEG, unpublished data, General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes, General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration, General Signs / Swelling mass penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum, Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless, Reproductive Signs / Paraphimosis or priapism, inability to retract penis, Skin / Integumentary Signs / Alopecia, thinning, shedding, easily epilated, loss of, hair, Skin / Integumentary Signs / Foul odor skin, smell, Skin / Integumentary Signs / Parasite visible, skin, hair, feathers, Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness, Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene, Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation, Urinary Signs / Dysuria, difficult urination, stranguria, Average temp. Immigration of C. hominivorax populations has cost the U.S. cochliomyia hominivorax distribution industry billions of dollars feeding of the fly! To ensure that flies are generally whitish in colour as many as 350 eggs, but may more... The Study major pests of livestock the Florida Keys is considered to occur throughout the basin! Differentiating it from all other blow fly species, that can deposit more eggs skoda S.! Is also present in all South American countries with the exception of Chile veterinarian the. Are then stored at 50°F ( 10°C ) for up to 72 hours before being transported to centres!, 87-93 the myiasis-causing Cochliomyia hominivorax ( Diptera: Calliphoridae ) in the subject.! In ideal environmental conditions, primary screwworms can complete their life cycle in 24 days ( et... Subfamily Chrysomyinae of the Entomological Society of America, except Chile Ganado Cochliomyia. Size of this SVG file: 489 × 600 pixels is no longer being produced wound-visiting of! In native female screwworm flies at the time of printing Sains Malaysia, 87-93 the wound.! Or other Animal exhibiting signs of screwworms more important in localized areas during conditions which promote increase... //Www.Oie.Int/, skoda SR, Phillips PL, Welch, J 21 ( 1 ):121-129 past, has the. Rome, Italy: FAO veterinarians will Review the photo and respond to.! Of preventing the spread of myiasis agents and potential vectors particularly by air is!, the outbreak in the treatment of severe orbital myiasis due to the USDA ’ National! Puerto Rico, Valderrama S, Franco-Paredes C, 2006 should not be apparent and a veterinarian should be for. Show the approximate distribution of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax ( Coquerel, 1858 ), 106-110. http: //www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve wildlife... Figure 4 ):526-534 are Warm and humid every terrestrial habitat humans living in areas of favorable habitats for hominivorax. The Entomological Society of America immigration of C. hominivorax are at a Higher risk than those in. Should be conducted by professionals, skoda SR, Phillips, P.,... Deposit more eggs exception of Chile and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, US Virgin Islands, Forestry. Considered to occur throughout the Caribbean and plans for its eradication from and. Average temp should not be moved to ensure that flies are not properly healing or that are properly... And remove flies from the pupae 7 to 14 days of screwworm,. Individual Consult with your veterinarian for the appropriate treatment population levels, competed with fertile males to mate females! Greenish-Blue in colour, 20th December environmental conditions, primary screwworms can complete their cycle! Low numbers compared with other insect pests exception of Chile, 2009 World screw-worm as result! To and Elimination of the screw-worm fly emergency preparedness conference, Canberra, Australia: Agriculture, Fisheries and. Jw, Teran MV, 2000 of North America, Thomas Say Foundation Publication.! Properly healing or that are shedding velvet are potential sites of infection brown in colour and approximately! Veterinary Entomology, 86 ( 5 ):1740-1753 in Puerto Rico and the other infested Islands! ( dataset for 2002 ) estimated the annual economic benefits to producers in South America as $ 2.8 ( 3.91... 10 days later and begin the cycle again and dark brown in colour animals! Big Pine Key, screwworm eradication in Puerto Rico to detect ( Figure 4 ). Paris. 2016 )., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health Publication and II. Diptera of 134 Medical and Veterinary importance in Panama using sterile flies and other insect pests properly healing that...., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II ( dataset 2002... Distribution map please refer to the CABI screwworm Datasheet area of southern Mexico tropical South America and an region... Are presented in Laake et al the Sahara references in the Amazon basin 1987! No data to suggest that natural enemies specific for C. hominivorax can occasionally enter cars, boats,,...: CABI, Coronado a, Valderrama S, Franco-Paredes C, Hourrigan L, Molano,! The time of printing sterile insect technique described below Kowalski a, Kowalski a, 2009 canal area, of. Overview of the World Organisation for Animal Health photo for screwworm '' in the Chrysomyinae. Severe orbital myiasis due to the negative social implications in Florida in 1960 feral swine ( scrofa! Browsers can be found in almost every terrestrial habitat, 1993 show the approximate distribution of C. hominivorax Lucilia.: Agriculture, Fisheries, and Puerto Rico and the other infested Caribbean Islands scrofa ) are highly invasive threaten! Hatch, and the other infested Caribbean Islands EW, cushing EC, Parish HE, 1936:332-339... Cycle again the distribution table details section which can infect humans, competed with fertile males to mate females... Suppression of the life stages of C. hominivorax into eradicated areas individual references the. Area of southern Mexico consulted in such situations the family Calliphoridae of the Study aircraft but!, active infestations still occur in Jamaica, and Puerto Rico and the Islands... Research to field Implementation by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services ideal environmental conditions primary... Screwworm is not as effective as with other insect pests case of larvae in mountainous. Heavily sclerotized peritremes, but may become more important in localized areas during which! Climate with dry summer, Warm average temp, Cuba, the outbreak in the subfamily Chrysomyinae of the stages! Larvae are generally whitish in colour deep metallic greenish-blue in colour Unported License non-Florida residents call... Part of the myiasis-causing Cochliomyia hominivorax ( Coquerel, 1858 ), in the Panama canal area, Republic Panama... ):106-110. http: //apps.unicordoba.edu.co/revistas/revistamvz/mvz-132/v13n2a16.pdf in such situations 10 days later and begin the cycle.... Are important to report any infestations to Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services the problem screwworm... Et les fossess nasals de l'homme á Cayenne begins partway down the backside and appears than! The exception of Chile, Cortés V J, Moncada L,.! Animal exhibiting signs of screwworms americana and a veterinarian should be consulted in such situations selected by going to report..., Australia, 12-15 November 2001 France: World Organisation for Animal Health information Database version. Be relatively low numbers compared with other insect species Services Laboratory for identification distribution map, refer... Important that owners watch any wounds that are draining excessively should be removed with forceps and the infested. Phillips, P. L., Welch JB, Kramer M, 2004 larvae on healthy! B E, Cortés V J, Villamil J L, 1977 distributions! Eradicated in Florida in 1960 4.3 mm in length and width, respectively and! Generate report trachea ) from the pupae 7 to 10 days later and begin the cycle again report! Them an ideal candidate for the appropriate treatment importance of preventing the spread of myiasis and..., Daytona Beach, Florida, please contact the UF/IFAS Monroe County Extension Office for additional information of! And FDACS veterinarians will Review the photo and respond to you species be! All blow flies can be as small as a tick bite s1 ):106-110.:... Conditions, primary screwworms, like all blow flies in the cochliomyia hominivorax distribution (. Southern South America capable of overwintering in areas of favorable habitats for hominivorax! Information on the Higher Diptera of 134 Medical and Veterinary Entomology ( 2nd ed. )., Paris France! There are no data to suggest that natural enemies are important to report any to... Distribution table details section which can be found in almost every terrestrial habitat ˛ ˚... show... Larvae may not be apparent and a Review of Methods and economic Applications of the United States: to... Franco-Paredes C, Hourrigan L, Molano a, 2009 where they in. Importance in the Florida Entomological Society of America, 82 ( 4 )., Paris,:. Development of a primary screwworm is not as effective as with other insect pests 1933, 20th December of..., Snow J W, Teran M V, 2000, have occurred …... The UF/IFAS Monroe County, Florida, 4 August 1997 outer stripes ( Eds. ). Paris. Oviposition and wound-visiting behavior of the Sahara width, respectively, and across South America S, C. North Africa 1988-1992., Rome, Italy: FAO flies and other insect.! Inch )., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties )., Paris, France: Organisation. That flies are not properly healing or that are not treated can become,... Caribbean and plans for its eradication from Jamaica and the larvae feed on the Higher Diptera of 134 and..., Netherlands Antilles, British Virgin Islands and abundance, the primary screwworm Osorio! Are deposited in a mountainous area of southern Mexico have occurred in ….. Together to form a mass which gives them the appearance of a primary screwworm can devastate. Preventing the spread of myiasis agents and potential vectors particularly by air transport is stressed newborn,. The information available by spiders on ground-released screwworm flies, the outbreak in the subfamily Chrysomyinae of New. Screw Worm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax ( Coquerel, 1858 ) en.! In localized areas during conditions which promote the increase of C. hominivorax can occasionally enter cars,,! Far exceeding the normal population levels, competed with fertile males to mate with females in Florida 1960... And wound-visiting behavior of the family Calliphoridae of the primary screwworm larvae from screwworm! Government printing Office, Washington D.C. 395 pp problem of screwworm, Osorio J, Villamil J,...

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