These results point to specific aspects of adolescents’ participation in sport that can be used The third model (including interactions between goals and sports settings) indicated that having skill development goals led to a higher sports frequency among sports club members. The 20-item SDT-based Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire (GCEQ)  was translated into Dutch and used to assess the importance that participants attribute to intrinsic goals (i.e., skill development, social affiliation, and health management) and extrinsic goals (i.e., image and social recognition) with regard to sports participation. Formal analysis, Discover how Australian preferences for sport participation differ and how to engage each segment of the population. Specifically, these previous studies found that those who participated in sport also reported higher … The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Ss were categorized according to gender, amount of physical contact, highest level of organized sport participation, and years of participation. about sports participation (for examples, see Gratton and Tice (1991) and Downward and Riordan (2007). Autonomous motivation (α = 0.81) was calculated by obtaining the average of the identified and intrinsic regulation subscales. On the other hand, the results revealed that having (intrinsic) skill development and social affiliation goals were associated with a higher sports frequency among sports club members than among non-club organized and informal sports participants. No, Is the Subject Area "Surveys" applicable to this article? Based on survey questions about the sports location and organizational setting that were used most often for participation in the principal type of sports over the past year (see above), the variable sports setting was composed. Three categories of address density were distinguished: rural (< 500 addresses per km2), hardly to moderately urbanized (500–1.500 addresses per km2), and strongly to extremely urbanized (> 1.500 per km2). Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed a slightly different factor structure compared to the theoretical division. However, these issues did not lead to an overrepresentation of the share of sports participants in the sample, as 70% of our sample participated three times or more in sports per month, which is similar to the percentage of sports participants among the general Dutch population . When the interaction effects of goals with sports settings appeared in model 3, the positive relation of controlled motivation on the sports frequency of club members (model 2) disappeared. The results show that participation in some activities improves achievement, while participation in others diminishes achievement. – than heterosexual can be problematic”. Increasing participation in sports and physical activity is an important health objective in developed countries [1,2]. Future interventions may also benefit from enhancing support for physical activity from adults and peers. In light of the above, the present study aims to investigate 1) how users of different settings differ regarding self-determined motivations and goals, and sociodemographic and sports-related characteristics and 2) how the association of motivations and goals with sports frequency may differ between users of different sports settings. Variables predicting clinical EDs, and thus candidates for valid screening procedures, were menstrual dysfunction in leanness athletes, self-reported EDs in non-leanness athletes, and self-reported use of pathogenic weight control methods in controls. To test whether the association of motivations and goals with sports frequency differs between sports settings, interactions between types of motivations and sports settings and interactions between types of goals and sports settings were included. Participation in service and religious activities predicted lower rates of drinking and drug use. Copyright: © 2018 Deelen et al. Person-oriented, qualitative research approaches could contribute to this. Sports research paper topics of sociology focus on two things: why do people play sports, and what sports make for society. For instance, their sports frequency could be fostered trough autonomy and flexibility. To develop targeted policy strategies to increase sports participation, more insight is needed into the behavioural patterns and preferences of users of different club-organized (i.e., sports clubs) and non-club organized (i.e., gyms, health centres or swimming pools) or informal sports settings such as public spaces. What Adolescents Learn in Organized Youth Activities: A Survey of Self‐Reported Developmental Experiences, Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Development, Social and motivational predictors of continued youth sport participation, Sports Participation as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents as Mediated by Self-Esteem and Social Support. Conceptualization, PLoS ONE 13(10): Substance abuse, body weight, and exercise did not mediate these associations. Sports Participation, Physical Activity, and Health-Related Fitness in Youth With Chronic Diseases or Physical Disabilities The Health in Adapted Youth Sports Study . In this study, we investigated the contribution of organized youth sport to antisocial and prosocial behavior in adolescent Youth activities were associated with experiences related to initiative, identity exploration and reflection, emotional learning, developing teamwork skills, and forming ties with community members. Based on previous research [35,36], scores from the BREQ were used to create variables representing controlled and autonomous motivation. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45300/1/10964_2005_Article_8933.pdf. In this article, we test: (a) the relation between school-based extracurricular participation and indicators of positive and negative development across a range of activity contexts, and (b) a mediation model linking activity participation, prosocial peers, and development. The goals of sports club participants were relatively often related to social affiliation (M = 3.8; SD = 0.8), skill development (M = 3.6; SD = 0.9), and social recognition (M = 2.1; SD = 0.8). , club-organized sport refers to participation in a conventional–often voluntary run–association that offers sports activities based on formal membership agreements. This could be a reason why more individual goals related to one’s own health are needed to decide whether or not to practice. Members of traditional sports clubs, on the other hand, were more experienced and competitive athletes and participated more frequently in team sports. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation In addition, intensity of participation moderated the links between attainment value and identity and flow, and ability self-concept and identity, for older students. The mean age was 50.6 (SD = 15.8), and 55.1% of respondents were women. Software, Based on the social-ecological framework, we hypothesize that both sociodemographic and motivational variables may have different effects on sports frequency depending on the specific setting for sports activities. The review reveals a mixed picture of the relationship between activity participation and these adolescent developmental outcomes. In addition to reviewing the literature it questions the understandings of sport which typically underpin such interventions. With regard to motivations and goals, descriptive analyses showed that users of informal and non club-organized sports settings were more similar to each other than to sports club members. (C) 2013 The Authors. We controlled for the following demographic characteristics in the multivariate analyses: age, sex, and education. Non-club-organized sports entails all other forms of participation outside of a club, which generally takes place in organizational settings, such as self-organized participation in informal groups or alone, but also in commercial health and fitness centres, alternative programmes and facilities offered by municipal sport services or company-based sport [10,29,30]. Participants in non-club organized and informally in public spaces more frequently identified themselves as recreational athletes, whether novice or experienced: 88% in non-club organized and 83.3% in informal settings, compared to 56.9% in sports clubs. Introduction to the special issue on sports participation in Europe. Participants in most extracurricular activities achieved better educational outcomes than non-participants even after controlling for social class, gender, and intellectual aptitude. Results suggested that coaches who maintain good relationships with their athletes reduce antisocial This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. To maintain or increase the number of members and to not lose ground to informal sports settings, sports clubs could offer extra (low threshold, few skills needed) trainings focused on less experienced or less competitive participants and those with poorer health status, who prefer to have more flexibility and less obligation or recognition from others. Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Roles The 15-item Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ) , which is based on SDT, was translated into Dutch and used to investigate intrinsic motivation and identified, introjected and external exercise-based motivational regulations. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205198.t001. All variables that relate to sports participation (including frequency, setting, motivations, goals, and type of sports) refer to the respondents’ participation in their principal type of sports. Women prefer walking for leisure, men general sports. 0-1 hour 1-2 hours 2-5 hours 5-10 hours 10-12 hours 12 + hours Question Title * 9. We have excluded the following respondents from the analyses: those who did not participate in sports or who participated less than once a month (N = 477), those who participated in an inactive form of sports (e.g., bridge) (N = 20), and respondents with missing sociodemographic data (N = 256). Most participants described themselves as an experienced recreational athlete (58.7%). We removed the item ‘I get restless if I don’t participate in my sport regularly’ because reliability analysis indicated that the internal consistency of the introjected regulation subscale was too low if we included this item. As the epidemic of overweight increases among youth, research needs to examine factors that may influence children's participation in weight-related health behaviors. Supervision, – . Group differences were not significant for the academic scales and emotional self-concept, but nonathletes had marginally higher spiritual and honesty self-concepts. Gender differences in esteem for elite athletes mirrored gender differences found for nonathletes. This letter contained the link and unique credentials for the online survey. Yes Developmental Benefits of Extracurricular Involvement: Do Peer Characteristics Mediate the Link Between Activities and Youth Outcomes? The Perceived Legitimacy of Rule Violating Behavior in Sport. They were invited to participate in the study by their municipality, by means of an official letter by post. Project administration, According to the Centre for Youth Sport and Athlete Welfare: “Social attitudes have meant that there has been a reluctance even to recognise that sports participation by those whose sexual orientation is anything other 1 Cryer J. Participation in sports has been shown to be protective against depression and suicidal ideation, but little is known about what factors mediate these relationships. Our sample included 1,259 mostly European American adolescents (approximately equal numbers of males and females). Given that the current findings represent perceptions only, future prospective work is needed to further our understanding of the effects of experiencing emotional abuse. It also explores potential mediating mechanisms that link such participation to academic success. This suggests that a selection bias towards more sports-minded respondents has not occurred. From the documents review it appears that, on the one hand, a few instruments are used to evaluate sportsmanship and unsportsmanlike conducts in educational sports, and most of them focus on professional sport. Researchers have demonstrated that, through shared experiences and social processes, adolescent sports participation can facilitate improved academic outcomes, self‐concept formation, higher subjective well‐being, and increased physical activity. The results of the ordinal regression analyses showed that motivations, goals and interactions of motivations and goals with sports settings were related to sports frequency. Moreover, we measured both motivations and goals, and these scales were both based on psychological theories of motivation. Adolescents should be offered ample opportunity and encouragement to participate in sports, which can protect against depression and suicidal ideation by boosting self-esteem and increasing social support. Barriers to and support for physical activity were examined among 84 overweight children attending a summer fitness camp or a university-based weight loss clinic. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved), Compared a broad cross-section of 36 male and 47 female elite athletes (aged 15–28 yrs) to a normative sample of 2,436 nonathletes (aged 13–48 yrs) on the 13 self-concept scales of the Self-Description Questionnaire III (SDQ—III). Yes Key predictors for sports participation and retention, including individual differences, perceived ability, and social support, are also reviewed. Sports participation was defined as ‘purposeful active participation in sports related physical activities performed during leisure-time’ [10,29,30]. Barriers and support levels were then compared with those of 80 nonoverweight children of a similar age range. Published by Elsevier Inc. Because of the growing importance of informal and flexible settings and health goals, professionals in the sports and health domains should take into account the motivations, goals and needs of different target groups who (want to) use unorganized, informal sports settings including public spaces. Moreover, creating a healthy, welcoming and inclusive environment might allow those with more vulnerable health status to feel more at ease at sports clubs . Participation is motivated by enjoyment and the development and maintenance of social support networks. However, among club members, extrinsic goals related to image (B = 0.44), as well as intrinsic goals related to skill development (B = 0.40) and social affiliation (B = 0.47) had significant positive associations with sports frequency. No, Is the Subject Area "Physical activity" applicable to this article? The article critically evaluates the rationale for using sport-focused interventions in response to drug use and criminal behaviour amongst young people. Rather than focusing on contrasts between sport and deviant behaviour, the article draws attention to the commonality of sporting and criminal/drug use experiences. INTRODUCTION: Sports participation, while offering numerous developmental benefits for adolescents, has been associated with alcohol use in prior research. Lankhorst, Kristel 1,2; Takken, Tim 3; Zwinkels, Maremka 2,4; van Gaalen, Leendert 1; Velde, Saskia te 1; Backx, Frank 2; Verschuren, Olaf 4; Wittink, Harriet 1; de Groot, Janke 1,3,5. 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